Chapter 10 covers a wide range of topics relating to the impacts of transport system on the environment. The chapter begins with the history of environmental trends that offer a background for the subsequent sections. The focus falls particularly on pollutants from road transport such as CO2, particulate matter (PM), and noise pollution. The chapter explains carbon pricing as well as other policy tools that can be used to mitigate environmental impacts of transportation. The latest innovations (technological and those relating to behaviors) as well as new mobility solutions are discussed and examined in the context of their environmental consequences.